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ASTM A213/A213M-17——beite

Attention:     Issuing time:2018-07-30 09:27
ASTM A213/A213M -17 Abstract

ASTM A213/A213M -17 Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes.

This specification covers seamless ferritic and austenitic steel boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger tubes. Grades containing the letter H in their designation have requirements different from those of similar grades not containing the letter H. These different requirements provide higher creep-rupture strength than normally achievable in similar grades without these different requirements. The tubes shall be made by the seamless process and shall be either hot finished or cold finished, as specified. Grade TP347HFG shall be cold finished. Heat treatment shall be done separately and in addition to heating for hot forming. The ferritic alloy and ferritic stainless steels shall be reheated. On the other hand, austenitic stainless steel tubes shall be furnished in the heat-treated condition. Alternatively, immediately after hot forming, while the temperature of the tubes is not less than the minimum solution temperature, tubes may be individually quenched in water or rapidly cooled by other means. Tension test, hardness test, flattening test, and flaring test shall be done to each tube. Also, each tube shall be subjected to the nondestructive electric test or hydrostatic test.
 
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
 
1. Scope
1.1 This specification2 covers seamless ferritic and austenitic steel boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger tubes, designated Grades T5, TP304, etc. These steels are listed in Tables 1 and 2.
 
(A) Maximum, unless range or minimum is indicated. Where ellipses (...) appear in this table, there is no requirement, and analysis for the element need not be determined or reported.
(B) It is permissible to order T2 and T12 with a sulfur content of 0.045 max. See 16.3.
(C) Alternatively, in lieu of this ratio minimum, the material shall have a minimum hardness of 275 HV in the hardened condition, defined as after austenitizing and cooling to room temperature but prior to tempering. Hardness testing shall be performed at mid-thickness of the product. Hardness test frequency shall be two samples of product per heat treatment lot and the hardness testing results shall be reported on the material test report.
(D) The terms Niobium (Nb) and Columbium (Cb) are alternate names for the same element.
(A) Maximum, unless a range or minimum is indicated. Where ellipses (...) appear in this table, there is no minimum and analysis for the element need not be determined or reported.
(B) The method of analysis for Nitrogen shall be a matter of agreement between the purchaser and the producer.
(C) For these alloys, there is no common grade designation. The UNS number uniquely identifies these alloys.
(D) For small diameter or thin walls, or both, where many drawing passes are required, a carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in Grades TP304L, TP304LN, TP316L, and TP316LN.
(E) Grade S30434 shall have (Ti + 1/2 Nb) of not less than 2 times and not more than 4 times the carbon content.
(F) Grade TP347LN shall have an Nb content of not less than 15 times the carbon content.
(G) Grade TP348 shall have an Nb + Ta content of not less than 10 times the carbon content and not more than 1.10%.
(H) Grade TP348H shall have an Nb + Ta content of not less than 8 times the carbon content and not more than 1.10%.
(I) Iron shall be determined arithmetically by difference of 100 minus the sum of the other specified elements.
(J) Al + Ti shall be 0.85 % min; 1.20 % max.
(K) Grade TP444 shall have Ni + Cu = 1.00 max.
(L) Grade TP444 shall have Ti + Nb content not less than 0.20 + 4(C+N) and not more than 0.80 %.
(M) N08020 shall have an Nb + Ta content of not less than 8 times the carbon content and not more than 1.00%.
(N) The terms Niobium (Nb) and Columbium (Cb) are alternate names for the same element.
 
1.2 Grades containing the letter, H, in their designation, have requirements different from those of similar grades not containing the letter, H. These different requirements provide higher creep-rupture strength than normally achievable in similar grades without these different requirements.
 
1.3 The tubing sizes and thicknesses usually furnished to this specification are 1/8 in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter to 5 in. [127 mm] in outside diameter and 0.015 to 0.500 in. [0.4 to 12.7 mm], inclusive, in minimum wall thickness or, if specified in the order, average wall thickness. Tubing having other diameters may be furnished, provided such tubes comply with all other requirements of this specification.
 
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the “M” designation of this specification is specified in the order.
 
 
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) 
 
ASTM Standards
A262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels
A941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys
A1016/A1016M Specification for General Requirements for Ferritic Alloy Steel, Austenitic Alloy Steel, and Stainless Steel Tubes
E112 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
 
AWS Specifications
A5.23/A5.23M Specification for Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.5/A5.5M


3. Terminology
3.1 Definitionx—For definitions of terms used in this speci- fication, refer to Terminology A 941.
 
 
4. Ordering Information
4.1 It shall be the responsibility of the purchaser to specify all requirements that are necessary for products under this specification. Such requirements to be considered include, but are not limited to, the following:
4.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths),
4.1.2 Name of material (seamless tubes),
4.1.3 Grade (Tables 1 and 2),
4.1.4 Condition (hot finished or cold finished),
4.1.5 Controlled structural characteristics (see 6.3),
4.1.6 Size (outside diameter and minimum wall thickness, unless average wall thickness is specified),
4.1.7 Length (specific or random),
4.1.8 Hydrostatic Test or Nondestructive Electric Test (see 10.1),
4.1.9 Specification designation and year of issue,
4.1.10 Increased sulfur (for machinability, see Note B, Table 1, and 15.3), and
4.1.11 Special requirements and any supplementary require- ments selected.


5. General Requirements
5.1 Product furnished to this specification shall conform to the requirements of Specification A 1016/A 1016M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the general require- ments of Specification A 1016/A 1016M constitutes noncon- formance with this specification. In case of conflict between the requirements of this specification and Specification A 1016/ A 1016M, this specification shall prevail.




6. Materials and Manufacture
6.1 Manufacture and Condition—Tubes shall be made by the seamless process and shall be either hot finished or cold finished, as specified. Grade TP347HFG shall be cold finished.
6.2 Heat Treatment:
6.2.1 Ferritic Alloy and Ferritic Stainlexx Steelx—The fer- ritic alloy and ferritic stainless steels shall be reheated for heat treatment in accordance with the requirements of Table 3. Heat treatment shall be carried out separately and in addition to heating for hot forming.
6.2.2 Auxtenitic Stainlexx Steelx—All austenitic tubes shall be furnished in the heat-treated condition, and shall be heat treated in accordance with the requirements of Table 3. Alter- natively, immediately after hot forming, while the temperature of the tubes is not less than the minimum solution treatment temperature specified in Table 3, tubes may be individually quenched in water or rapidly cooled by other means (direct quenched).
6.3 If any controlled structural characteristics are required, these shall be so specified in the order as to be a guide as to the most suitable heat treatment.


Heat Treatment and Grain Size RequirementsA

Grade UNS
Number
Heat Treat Type Austenitizing/ Solutioning Temperature,
min or range ºF [ºC]
Cooling Media Subcritical Annealing or Tempering Temperature,
min or range ºF [ºC]
 
ASTM
Grain S
      Ferritic Alloy Steels      
T2 K11547 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper
    subcritical anneal 1200 to 1350
          [650 to 730]  
T5 K41545 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T5b K51545 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T5c K41245 subcritical anneal air or furnace 1350 [730]C
T9 S50400 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T11 K11597 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1200 [650]
T12 K11562 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper
    subcritical anneal 1200 to 1350
          [650 to 730]  
T17 K12047 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1200 [650]
T21 K31545 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T22 K21590 full or isothermal anneal
    normalize and temper 1250 [675]
T23 K40712 normalize and temper 1900–1975 1350–1470 [730–800]
      [1040–1080]      
T24 K30736 normalize and tempher 1800–1975 1350–1470 [730–800]
      [980–1080]      
T36 K21001 normalize and temper 1650 [900] D 1100 [595]
T91 K90901 normalize and temper 1900–1975 1350–1470 [730–800]
      [1040–1080]      
T92 K92460 normalize and temper 1900–1975 1350–1470 [730–800]
      [1040–1080]      
T122 K91261 normalize and temper 1900–1975 1350–1470 [730–800]
      [1040–1080]      
T911 K91061 normalize and temper 1900–1975 E 1365–1435
      [1040–1080]   [740–780]  
Austenitic Stainless Steels
TP201 S20100 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP202 S20200 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
XM-19 S20910 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
S21500 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F,G water or other rapid cool
S25700 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
S30150: solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP304 S30400 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP304L S30403 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP304H S30409 solution treatment 1900 [1040] water or other rapid cool 7
S30432 solution treatment 2000 [1100]F water or other rapid cool
S30434 solution treatment 2120 [1160] water or other rapid cool
TP304N S30451 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP304LN S30453 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
S30615 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
S30815 solution treatment 1920 [1050] water or other rapid cool
TP309S S30908 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP309H S30909 solution treatment 1900 [1040] water or other rapid cool 7
TP309Cb S30940 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP309HCb S30941 solution treatment 1900 [1040]H water or other rapid cool 7
S31002 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP310S S31008 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP310H S31009 solution treatment 1900 [1040] water or other rapid cool 7
TP310Cb S31040 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool
TP310HCb S31041 solution treatment 1900 [1040]H water or other rapid cool 7
TP310HCbN S31042 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F,H water or other rapid cool 7
S31060 solution treatment 1975 [1080]–
2160 [1180]F
water or other rapid cool 7
S31254 solution treatment 2100 [1150] water or other rapid cool
S31272 solution treatment 1920 [1050] water or other rapid cool
S31277 solution treatment 2050 [1120]F water or other rapid cool
TP316 S31600 solution treatment 1900 [1040]F water or other rapid cool


 
 
7.Chemical Composition
An analysis of either one billet or one tube shall be made from each heat. The chemical composition thus deter- mined shall conform to the requirements specified.


ASTM A213 Mechanical Properties:
Standard Grade C Mn P S Si Cr Mo V Nb
ASTM A213 T5 ≤0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 4.00-6.00 0.45-0.65 / /
T9 ≤0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 0.25-1.00 8.0-10.0 0.90-1.10 / /
T11 ≤0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44-0.65 / /
T12 ≤0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025  ≤0.025  0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44-0.65 / /
T22 0.050-0.15 0.30-0.60 ≤0.025 ≤0.025 ≤0.50 1.90-2.60 0.87-1.13 / /
T23 0.04-0.10 0.1-0.6 ≤0.03 ≤0.01 ≤0.5 1.9-2.6 0.05-0.3 0.2-0.3 0.02-0.08
T91 0.08-0.12 0.3-0.6 ≤0.02 ≤0.01 0.2-0.5 8.0-9.5 0.85-1.05 0.18-0.25 0.06-0.10

 
 
8.Grain Size
Grain size determinations, to demonstrate compliance, shall be made on one end of one finished tube from each lot. 
 

 
9. Mechanical Properties


Standard Grade Tensile Strength(MPa) Yield Strength(MPa) Elongation(%) Hardness(HB)
ASTM A213 T5 ≥415 ≥205 30 ≤163
T9 ≥415 ≥205 30 ≤179
T11 ≥415 ≥205 30 ≤179
T12 ≥415 ≥205 30 ≤179
T22 ≥415 ≥205 30 ≤163
T23 ≥510 ≥400 20 ≤220
T91 ≥585 ≥415 20 ≤250

 
Tensile Requirementx:
One tension test shall be made on a specimen from one tube for lots of not more than 50 tubes. Tension tests shall be made on specimens from two tubes for lots of more than 50 tubes.
 
Hardness Requirementx:
 
Brinell, Vickers, or Rockwell hardness tests shall be made on specimens from two tubes from each lot. 
 
Flattening Text—One flattening test shall be made on specimens from each end of one finished tube, not the one used for the flaring test, from each lot.
 
Flaring Text—One flaring test shall be made on speci- mens from each end of one finished tube, not the one used for the flattening test, from each lot. 
 
 
Mechanical property requirements do not apply to tubing smaller than 1⁄8 in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter or thinner than 0.015 in. [0.4 mm] in thickness.
 



 
 
10. Hydrostatic or Nondestructive Electric Test
10.1 Each tube shall be subjected to the nondestructive electric test or the hydrostatic test. The type of test to be used shall be at the option of the manufacturer, unless otherwise specified in the purchase order.
 
11. Forming Operations
11.1 Tubes, when inserted in a boiler or tube sheet, shall stand expanding and beading without showing cracks or flaws. Superheater tubes when properly manipulated shall stand all forging, welding, and bending operations necessary for appli- cation without developing defects. See Note 1.
 
NOTE 1—Certain of the ferritic steels covered by this specification will harden if cooled rapidly from above their critical temperature. Some will air harden, that is, become hardened to an undesirable degree when cooled in air from high temperatures, particularly chromium-containing steels with chromium of 4 % and higher. Therefore, operations that involve heating such steels above their critical temperatures, such as welding, flanging, and hot bending, should be followed by suitable heat treatment.
 
 
 
12. Permissible Variations from the Specified Wall Thickness
12.1 Permissible variations from the specified minimum wall thickness  shall  be in accordance with  Specification  A 1016/A 1016M.
12.2 Permissible variations from the specified average wall thickness are ± 10 % of the specified average wall thickness.
 
 
 
13. Surface Condition
13.1 Ferritic alloy cold-finished steel tubes shall be free of scale and suitable for inspection. A slight amount of oxidation is not considered scale.
13.2 Ferritic alloy hot-finished steel tubes shall be free of loose scale and suitable for inspection.
13.3 Stainless steel tubes shall be pickled free of scale. When bright annealing is used, pickling is not necessary.
13.4 Any special finish requirement shall be subject to agreement between the supplier and the purchaser.
 


14. Sampling
14.1 For flattening, flaring, and grain size requirements, the term lot applies to all tubes, prior to cutting, of the same size that are produced from the same heat of steel. When final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shall include only those tubes of the same size and from the same heat that are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When the final heat treatment is in a continuous furnace or when the heat-treated condition is obtained directly by quenching after hot forming, the number of tubes of the same size and from the same heat in a lot shall be determined from the size 
14.2 For tensile and hardness test requirements, the term lot applies to all tubes prior to cutting, of the same size that are produced from the same heat of steel. When final heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shall include only those tubes of the same size and the same heat that are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When the final heat treatment is in a continuous furnace, or when the heat-treated condition is obtained directly by quenching after hot forming, a lot shall include all tubes of the same size and heat, heat treated in the same furnace at the same temperature, time at heat, and furnace speed; or all tubes of the same size and heat, hot formed and quenched in the same production run, except as prescribed in 9.1.3.
 
15. Product Marking
15.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Specification A 1016/A 1016M, the marking shall include: the condition, hot finished or cold finished; and the wall designation, minimum wall or average wall.
15.2 For the austenitic stainless steels having a grain size requirement (see Table 3) the marking shall also include the heat number and heat-treatment lot identification.
 
 
15.3 When either T2 or T12 are ordered with higher sulfur contents as permitted by Note B of Table 1, the marking shall include the letter, S, following the grade designation: T2S or T12S.
 
 
16. Keywords
16.1 alloy steel tubes; austenitic stainless steel; boiler tubes; ferritic stainless steel; heat exchanger tubes; high-temperature applications; seamless steel tubes; steel tubes; superheater tubes; temperature service applications-high



 


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